(Deutsch) Im Koran ist Adam der, den Gott „vor den Menschen in aller Welt“ auserwählt hat (3,33) und ebenso wie im Alten Testament der Stammvater aller Menschen (4,1). Die Überlieferung bringt die Erschaffung Adams in engen Zusammenhang mit dem Hauptheiligtum des Islam, der Ka’ba in Mekka, denn sie berichtet, daß Gott Adam aus Lehm erschuf, den er für seinen Kopf von der Erde der Ka’ba nahm und für seine Brust und seinen Rücken von Jerusalem.
The Koran does not contain any passages which comprise any kind of systematic description of the characteristics of God. In Arabic he is called “Allah”, which means simply “The God”. God does not introduce himself in the Koran like he does in the Old Testament, with the words “I am who I am”, (Exodus 3,14, NASB) but remains hidden – a mystery.
Fasting (in Arabic: saum) plays an important role in Islam. The tradition, made up of accounts of decisions of Muhammad and his followers in the early Islamic community, expands and expounds the preliminary stipulations laid down in the Koran. Predominant is Ramadan, the annual month-long fast in the ninth month of the Muslim calendar, which is binding on all Muslims of both sexes from puberty onwards. Deliberate failure to observe it is regarded as a heinous offence.
Muslim apologists (defenders of their faith) frequently emphasize – not least of all in events featuring religious dialogue – that Islam, in contrast to the Christian churches, knows no kind of “mission”. In some cases, even a renunciation of Christian mission is demanded since, as is claimed, it is one of the greatest barriers to dialogue.
Islamic theology regards Sharia law as perfect, God-given legislation not of human origin and therefore beyond question. Muslim apologists claim the world-wide application of the Sharia would result in universal freedom and justice. God’s commands were communicated to the Prophet Muhammad through the archangel Gabriel and recorded in the Koran and traditional Islamic texts. The relevant legal texts have been interpreted by renowned theologians, among whom the lawyers of the early centuries of Islam are regarded as particularly authoritative.
(Deutsch) Malaysia: Erlass von Richtlinien für den Aufenthalt muslimischer Astronauten im Weltraum anlässlich des Starts von Dr. Scheich Muszaphar Shukor zur ISS am 10. Oktober 2007 von lic.iur. Alexander Schaer.